Legacy Sediment Removal Project

Removing Streambed Sediment Leads to Cleaner Lakes Faster

algae bloom on Lake Kegonsa 2012
Algae bloom on Lake Kegonsa

Over the last few decades, the phosphorus concentrations of the Yahara Chain of Lakes (Mendota, Monona, Waubesa, Kegonsa) have led to an increase in the frequency and extent of algae blooms, creating green, slimy lakes and beaches.  Major sources of phosphorus have been identified as farm manure and fertilizer attached to sediments which are then transported to streams and lakes through rainfall runoff.  For over 30 years, the Dane County Land & Water Resources Department has assisted agricultural producers with conservation practice implementation to prevent soil erosion/barnyard runoff -- this is an essential step towards preventing additional phosphorus from entering the streams and lakes.  However, the question remained as to why algae blooms were still occurring despite decades of conservation work.

Dorn Creek Legacy Sediment
Streambed sediments in Dorn Creek

Breakthrough research in 2014 by Dane County in collaboration with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR), discovered that phosphorus concentrations in the stream sediments of Dorn Creek (northeast of Lake Mendota) are seven times greater than in nearby crop fields.  Much of the stream sediment is known as legacy sediment, deposits formed by erosion from farm fields accumulating over decades of farming.  In the case of Dorn Creek, this sediment has existed since the late 1800s.  For Lake Mendota, if the accrued legacy sediment remains at the bottom of the streams, it was calculated that it would take almost 100 years to see a 50 percent reduction in phosphorus, a goal long-cited for lake clean up.

In order to reduce phosphorus concentrations and improve water quality decades sooner than 100 years, Dane County developed an innovative project to remove the phosphorus-laden sediment from the streambeds of 33-miles of streams in the Lake Mendota watershed.  The segments were selected in consultation with WDNR based on which segments had a large amount of legacy sediment (see map below). 

 

Because of this breakthrough, we will see clean lakes in our lifetime.

Joe Parisi, Dane County Executive

Removal of sediment (more than 2 feet thick in some stream sections) is expected to expose the original gravel stream beds allowing regeneration of fish populations that are now absent. Sediment removal (vacuumed from streambeds) is planned to begin Fall 2017 and end in Spring 2021.  Water quality will be monitored throughout the project and beyond.  Overall the goal is to achieve cleaner lakes faster

Legacy Sediment Segments

Proposed Timeline

Fall 2017 Laboratory analyses of sediment/phosphorus/heavy metals in stream sediments to be removed
Sediment removal on Dorn Creek begins (2.3 miles)
Completion ~ Summer 2018
Fall 2018 Sediment removal on Upper Dorn Creek, Lower/Upper Sixmile Creek (9.0 miles)
Completion ~ Summer 2019
Fall 2019 Sediment removal on Nine Springs Creek Token Creek, Yahara River (15.0 miles)
Completion ~ Summer 2020
Fall 2020 Sediment removal on Lower Door Creek, Upper Door Creek (6.7 miles)
Completion ~ Summer 2021

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